4 OCO Silas S. Packard opens business XOvO school in New York City. Starting in 1850 as a penmanship teacher in Cincinnati, Silas S. Packard opened a business college in New York City in 1858, as part of the Bryant-Stratton chain. In 1867, he bought the school and changed its name to Packard College. His move was followed by others, putting an end to chain school development. Packard's leadership as teacher, textbook author, and school manager during this period is undisputed. It is held by some authorities that his school was the first to teach stenography and typewriting. (21:18-21) 4 OC4 Women enter business through doors of Treasury Department. An acute shortage of male clerks in the Federal Government offices during the Civil War provided the wedge for the entrance of women into the office. Gen eral Francis Elias Spiner, United States Treasurer under Lincoln, hired 1,500 women and took them into government offices. (12:35) The vast influx of women into the business office is illustrated by the fact that today women outnumber men by approximately 2 to 1 in the clerical and kindred occupations, according to the 1953 report of the Department of Labor. 4 Shorthand is offered in the pub- lie high school. Although authorities disagree on the exact year in which shorthand, or "phonogra phy," as it was then called, was offered in public high schools, there is good evidence that it was introduced in St. Louis in 1862. (27:20) The introduction and acceptance of shorthand and bookkeeping in the public schools at this time marks the origin of clearly defined business education at pub- lie expense in the United States. (25:434) 4 Morrill Act gives aid to collegiate business education. The "land grant act" gave each state 30,01)0 acres of land for every representa tive it had in Congress for the purpose of establishing a college for instruction in agriculture, mechanical arts, and business. 4 Q|%li Private school owners organized the National Union of Colleges. This group was replaced in 1867 by the International Business College Associa tion. An economic depression followed, and this organization was apparently dis solved. (22:145) 4 QI^O The first practical typewriter is .LOOO invented. The typewriter, invented by Christopher Latham Sholes in 1867, eventually pro vided a powerful impetus to the develop ment of business education on high school and business college levels. Typewriting has become the most popular subject in the high school business curriculum. The 1950 school census shows that one out of every five public high school students in the United States is enrolled in a type writing class. Close to three million per sons are studying typewriting in a formal manner. (4:139) 4Q7Q Frank McGurrin develops touch ® typewriting. When the typewriter first appeared on the market, some operators used two fin gers, others used four or six. Frank Mc Gurrin, the recognized typewriting cham pion of his day, introduced the method of using eight fingers and typing by touch. (43:491) By 1900, his method was almost universally accepted. 4 Q7Q Scott-Brown School, New York ® City, firsttooffertypewriting. Typewriting manufacturers, in their zeal to sell machines, held that no instruction on the machine was necessary. Private business schools, however, recognized the need for this training, and were the first institutions to offer it. (20:81) 4 07ft Business Educator's Associa- ® tion, the predecessor of the NEA Department of Busine^ Education, is or ganized. This was the firstorganization of any im portance of business educators to be formed. Consisting mainly of private school members, the organization puh- li'hcd monographs on such topics as the selection of teachers and equipment. 4 QQA The first typewriting instruction JiOOv book is published. In 1880, Edward F. Underbill published the first hook on typewriting, entitled Handbook of Instniction for the Type Writer. In 1882, Mrs. M. V. Longley, a teacher in her husband's school in Cin cinnati, prepared a hook on progressive typing lessons, using the eight-finger method. The title of her book was Rem ington Typeteriter Lees^om. The first text book to advocate touch typewriting was published by Bates Torrey in 1889, under the title of A Mamtal of Practical Type- ivritiny. (43:491) Private school teachers dominated the field of textbook author ship until the 1920's. 4 Qfil successful collegiate school of business is founded. The first successful school of business, the Wharton School of Finance and Com merce, University of Pennsylvania, was founded in 1881. Prior attempts to estab lish such a school were made at the Uni versity of Louisiana in 1851 by James De Bow, at the University of Wisconsin in 1866. and at Washington and Lee Uni- versitv in 1869 by Robert E. Lee. (37: 53-54) In 1898, both the University of Cali fornia and the University of Chicago opened their Colleges of Commerce. By 1935, there were more than 180 such schools, and enrollments were growing nine times more rapidly than were total collegiate enrollments, making business education the most rapidly growing form of higher education. From the beginning, the chief aim of collegiate business training has been the development of business leaders, capable of making decisions based upon famili arity with economics, sociology, psychol ogy, and other related fields. 4 OQC Publication is started of the Phonographic World. Published by E. N. Miner of New York, this magazine was of special interest to shorthand and typewriting teachers. In 1921, it became The Journal of Commer cial Education. In 1929, The Journal of Commercial Education and The Business School Journal (a Haire Publishing Com pany periodical started in 1928) combined and became the Journal of Busine.ss Edu cation. (23:7, 29) The Trethaway Pub lishing Company purchased the Journal in 1932. From 1936 to 1946, the National Council for Business Education purchased space in this publication and the Journal was used as its official publication. 4 QQA Frank Harrison's Shorthand XOOw Magazine is published. Number 1 of Volume 1 of this magazine was published in July of 1889. It was written especially for typists, shorthand writers, and professional reporters. 4 QQA The first public high school of commerce is started. The first high school of coJiimerce, estab lished as part of the public high school system, was the Business High School of Washington, D. C.. in 1890. New York City followed in 1901 and Boston in 1906 by opening separate business high schools. These schools, unhampered by classical traditions, developed model programs of business education. 4 52Q7 Business Educators' Association AOvm votes to join NEA. During the presidency of Enos Spencer, the Business Educators' Association took action to become a department in the National Education Association. The following is froni the minutes of the National Education Association dated July 12, 1892, at Saratoga Springs, New Y ork: A petition signed by the officers and members of the Business Educators' As sociation for admission as a dei^artrnent in the National Education Association was read, and the petition granted, and the department designated as the Department of Business Education. (31:31) 56 Business Education Forum
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